State Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) Procedures
Structures and processes for tracking and measuring progress towards 100% clean energy goals will play a large role in ensuring the success of state deep decarbonization initiatives. This table details the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) procedures that states have put in place to track and measure progress.
Center for Resource Solutions (CRS) conducted the research for the table in conjunction with the Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA). CRS staff began research beginning in October 2021 by reviewing publicly available materials (e.g., legislation, state websites) and interviewing state officials. After a draft of the table was produced, state officials were given an opportunity to review and modify it, as necessary.
CESA and CRS will update the table when there are changes to state MRV structures and procedures. If you know of anything that should be updated, please write to 100CEC@cleanegroup.org.
Click here to download this state information as an Excel spreadsheet.
Published April 2022
|wdt_ID||State||Goal||MRV Details||What is being regulated||Who is being regulated||Compliance Timeframe||Eligibility Restrictions||Carve Outs||MRV Status||Compliance Instrument||Procurement Requirements||MRV Rules and Practices||Multipliers||Alternative Compliance and Offsets||Special Rules and Notes||Relationships to other Programs|
|1||California||100% carbon-free electricity by 2045||Retail sales of electricity||Load-serving entities||Report on progress every four years||Changed rules related to the use of large hydro by Publicly Owned Municipal Utilities||[not applicable or no information]||MRV structures not yet identified||RECs for RPS||For the RPS, at least 65% of electricity products from long-term procurement (10 years or more).||Nothing in legislation yet, but the California Energy Commission (CEC), California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and California Air Resources Board (CARB) are required to prepare a report on progress.||[not applicable or no information]||CPUC imposes penalties on utilities that fail to meet their procurement requirements under the RPS.||[not applicable or no information]||SB100 increased the RPS|
|2||Colorado||100% carbon-free electricity by 2050 for Xcel Energy||Retail sales of electricity||Retail electric service providers except municipally owned utilities serving ≤40,000 customers and electric cooperatives that have voted to be exempt from PUC jurisdiction||Compliance by 2050 with annual reporting||[not applicable or no information]||3% of IOU retail electricity sales must come from either wholesale or retail DG||MRV structures not yet identified||RECs||[not applicable or no information]||RECs retirement in WREGIS is used to demonstrate RPS compliance. A utility may buy, sell, and trade RECs at any time as long as it obtains and retires sufficient levels of RECs to comply with RPS requirements. Submission of a clean energy plan to the PUC which sets forth a plan of action and investments projected to achieve compliance with the clean energy targets. The clean energy plan must anticipate reductions in carbon dioxide and other emissions.||1.25 for generation from eligible energy resources COD prior to 2015
1.50 for generation at a “community-based project”
3.00 for generation from solar located in the territory of a cooperative or municipal utility
2.00 for qualifying generation owned by a cooperative or municipal utility.
|[not applicable or no information]||RECs expire at the end of the fifth calendar year following the calendar year in which they were generated.||[not applicable or no information]|
|3||Connecticut||100% carbon-free electricity by 2040||Emissions associated with generation||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||For the RPS, renewable energy sources can be located in ISO-NE control area or the adjacent control area||[not applicable or no information]||No MRV info available||For RPS, RECs, Zero Renewable Energy Credits (ZRECS), Solar Home Renewable Energy Credits (SHRECS)||[not applicable or no information]||Nothing in legislation yet.||[not applicable or no information]||The RPS has an ACP. Class I and II: $55 per MWh, Class III: $31 per MWh||Governor Ned Lamont’s 2019 Executive Order (Number 3) set a 2040 goal for carbon-free electricity and asked the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to develop a decarbonization plan for the power sector, in line with previous legislation to cut economy-wide carbon emissions by 80% below 2001 levels by 2050.||[not applicable or no information]|
|4||District of Columbia||100% renewable energy by 2032 through the RPS||Retail sales of electricity||Electricity suppliers||Compliance by 2032, with annual compliance with scaled-up % and reporting||Within the PJM Interconnection region, Tier 1 resources, eligibility assigned by PSC||10% local solar carve-out by 2041||MRV through existing RPS||RECs, SRECs for carve-out||Beginning 1/1/2022, 80% of suppliers electric supply must be met with long-term (7+ years) PPA.||Must demonstrate REC retirement in PJM-GATS. Reporting to the Public Service Commission (PSC)||[not applicable or no information]||ACPs||The Clean Energy DC Omnibus Amendment Act of 2018 (DC Act 22-583) amended the existing RPS to mandate 100% renewable electricity by 2032 and solar carve-out to 10% by 2041.||100% clean energy goal achieved entirely through RPS.|
|5||Hawaii||100% renewable energy by 2045 through the RPS||Retail sales of electricity||Electricity utility companies||Compliance by 2045, with annual reporting||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||MRV through existing RPS||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||Compliance is measured by dividing a electricity utility company's sales of renewable energy by their total sales. RECs are not use for accounting. Reporting to the PUC||[not applicable or no information]||The PUC can assess penalties if an electric utility company fails to meet the renewable portfolio standard||Utilities serving multiple islands may aggregate and average renewable sales percentages to meet targets. Electrical energy savings generated by certain energy efficiency technologies count towards the RPS. All customer-sited, grid-connected PV generation is used towards compliance.||100% clean energy goal achieved entirely through RPS.|
|6||Illinois||100% clean energy by 2050||Retail sales of electricity||Investor-owned electric utilities and alternative retail electric suppliers (ARES), except electric cooperatives and municipal utilities||Report on progress every five year||At least 75% of RECs must come from wind and PV projects. Preference for projects in Clean Energy Empowerment Zones||[not applicable or no information]||No MRV info available||RECs||Prohibits spot-market RECs that are "unlikely to lead to the development of new renewable resources."||The Illinois Power Agency (IPA) and Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) jointly conduct a study every 5 years, starting in 2025, on the State's progress toward its renewable energy resources development goals and the current and projected status of electric resource adequacy and reliability throughout the state.||[not applicable or no information]||There are ACPs.||Requires an annually increasing amount of RECs to come from new build of wind and solar, split at 50% each; at least 33% of the the new solar must come from distributed and community solar PV projects. The IPA is developing a new Revised Long-Term Plan that reflects the changes to the RPS stemming from the 2021 Clean Energy Jobs Act (CEJA).||[not applicable or no information]|
|7||Louisiana||Economy-wide net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]|
|8||Maine||100% clean energy by 2050||Retail sales of electricity||Electricity providers||Compliance by 2030 with annual reporting (see Special Rules and Notes)||Generation that can be physically delivered into NEPOOL. Annually increasing amounts of Class IA and TRECs. By 2030, 40% of Maine load must be satisfied by Class IA resources and 4% by TRECs.||Each competitive electricity provider must have an annually increasing amount of TRECs, reaching up to 4% of retail electricity sales in 2029 and each year thereafter.||MRV through RPS + new MRV rules to be developed||RECs, Thermal RECs (TRECs), NEPOOL GIS certificates||For the RPS, 30% of Maine load must come from existing renewable electricity generation (Class II) and 10% from new renewable resources (Class I). Class 1 generators must have an in-service date after 9/1/2005. Additional procurement requirements exist for Class IA RECs.||Submission of an annual report that contains: total retail kWh sales in Maine, total retail kWh sales in Maine served from Class I, Class IA, and Class II eligible resources; the amount of TRECs obtained, and reports from the GIS Administrator or NAR Administrator as applicable. Reports are submitted to the PUC, which summarizes them in an annual report to the legislature.||From 2020 to 2024, a 300% multiplier for a generator fueled by qualifying municipal solid waste. A 1.5x credit multiplier available for qualifying community-based renewable energy projects.||The Class I and Class IA requirements of this section may be satisfied by an ACP.||There are two separate but related goals in statute [35-A MRS §3210 (1-A)]. By 2030, 80% of retail electricity sales from renewable resources; and by 2050, 100% of retail electricity sales from renewable resources.The 2030 goal is achieved through the RPS. For the 2050 goal, there are no specified compliance, procurement, or MRV requirements.||2019 legislation (LD 1494) increased Maine’s RPS to 80% by 2030, and set a goal of 100% by 2050. Until the state is closer to reaching its 80% goal, verification procedures for zero emissions generation will not likely be developed.|
|9||Massachusetts||Net-zero economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. CES reaches 80% in 2050.||Retail sales of electricity||Retail electricity suppliers, except municipal utilities||Compliance by 2050, with annual reporting||Generators must be located in the ISO-NE control area, or be located in an adjacent control area and utilize new (COD after Dec. 31, 2010) transmission capacity. Generators must be RPS-eligible or demonstrate net lifecycle GHG emissions of at least 50% below those from the most efficient natural gas generator (e.g., hydro, nuclear).||The Clean Energy Standard-Existing (CES-E) stipulates that a certain percentage of clean energy credits (CECs) come from nuclear or hydro that was online before 1/1/2011||Specific MRV structure established||RECs, CECs, CES-E certificates (ECECs)||[not applicable or no information]||CECs and RECs are used for CES and RPS compliance and are tracked and marked in NEPOOL GIS. Submission of Annual Compliance Filing that demonstrates percentage for RPS Class I, RPS Class II, APS, and CES percentage obligations. CECs are only for non-RPS resources that are eligible for the CES||[not applicable or no information]||The CES ACP price is 50% of the ACP for the RPS.||Energy procured pursuant to the 2016 Energy Diversity Act also counts toward compliance. In 2020, the Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs set a 2050 net-zero GHG emissions goal under the authority of 2008 legislation. The same goal was then included in a March 2021 climate action law (Bill S.9). A decarbonization roadmap was released at the end of 2020. By July 1, 2022, the Secretary will set a binding sector-specific emissions limit for the electric power sector (and other sectors) .In addition to RPS and CES/CES-E, Massachusetts also has a regulation that sets a declining cap on emissions from in-state power plants (310 CMR 7.74). The emissions limit declines to 1.8 MMT in 2050 and is tracked and enforced by MassDEP.||All retail sellers subject to the CES are also subject to RPS. The CES adds additional clean energy requirements above those in the RPS Class I regulations. For example, the 2018 RPS Class I standard was 13% and the CES requirement was 16%; therefore, retail sellers that were in compliance with RPS Class I had to procure an additional 3% of CES-eligible clean energy to comply with the CES (this may be met by procuring additional RPS Class I-eligible generation attributes above the RPS Class I requirement, through generation attributes that are eligible for CES but not RPS, or through CES ACP).|
|10||Michigan||Economy-wide carbon neutrality by 2050||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||No MRV info available||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||Specific carbon counting, offsets, restrictions on procurement, generation or resources, rules and MRV, etc. have not been developed, but the Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy is developing a plan “to achieve economy-wide carbon neutrality no later than 2050". This plan to be issued in 2022.||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]|
|11||Nevada||100% carbon-free electricity by 2050||Achieving by 2050 an amount of energy production from zero carbon dioxide emission resources that is equal to the total amount of electricity sold by providers of electric service in this State||Electric service providers||Compliance by 2050 with annual reporting||[not applicable or no information]||For the RPS, at least 6% of the total renewable energy requirement must be met with solar energy,||MRV through RPS + new MRV rules to be developed||RECs, Portfolio Energy Credits (PECs)||[not applicable or no information]||Reporting includes: The amount of electricity which the provider generated, acquired or saved from portfolio energy systems or efficiency measures during the reporting period and, if applicable, the amount of PECs that the provider acquired, sold or traded during the reporting period to comply with its portfolio standard; The capacity of each renewable energy system owned, operated or controlled by the provider, the total amount of electricity generated by each system during the reporting period and the percentage of that total amount which was generated directly from renewable energy, tracked through Nevada Tracks Renewable Energy Credits (NVTREC) and WREGIS||2x multiplier for electricity saved during peak periods as a result of efficiency measures. 2.4x for PECs from customer-sited PV placed into service by 2015 (this multiplier ended for new solar systems installed after 2015, but continues for existing solar PV systems).||If the Public Utilities Commission of Nevada (PUCN) determines a provider failed to meet the RPS, the PUCN may impose a fine, provide an exemption or take other administrative action.||Efficiency measures may be used to satisfy a portion of requirements. One PEC represents kWh of electricity generated by a portfolio energy system and is used for compliance.||2019 legislation (SB 358) raised the RPS to 50% by 2030, and set a goal of a net-zero emission power sector by 2050. Until the state is closer to reaching its 50% goal, verification procedures for zero emissions generation will not likely be developed.|
|12||New Jersey||100% clean energy by 2050||For the RPS, Each Third-Party Supplier (TPS) or Basic Generation Service provider that sells electricity to retail customers in New Jersey, shall include in its electric energy portfolio electricity generated from renewable energy sources.||For the RPS, an Electric Power Supplier or a Basic Generation Service provider that sells electricity to retail customers in New Jersey||Compliance by 2050||For the RPS, Class I or Class II REC, energy shall be generated within or delivered into the PJM region. Energy generated outside the PJM region shall be considered delivered into the PJM region if it has been added to the PJM region through dynamic scheduling of the output to load inside the PJM region. If Class I or Class II renewable energy is generated outside of the PJM region, but was delivered into the PJM region, the energy may be used only if the energy was generated at a facility that commenced construction on or after January 1, 2003.||For the RPS, Beginning in EY20, SRECs retired by TPS/BGS providers to meet the RPS requirements count towards achievement of the Class I requirements. Beginning in EY21, TRECs and beginning in EY 22 SREC-Iis are also carve outs from the Class I RPS requirements. Beginning with the operation of OSW projects, Offshore Renewable Energy Credits (ORECs) will also be a carve out.||No MRV info available||For RPS: SRECs, TRECs, SREC-IIs, ORECs, Class I and Class II RECs||RPS Class I requirements of 21% by 2020, 35% by 2025, and 50% by 2030.||Although there are no specific reporting requirements beyond the RPS, by December 1st of each year, each TPS/BGS provider shall file an annual report with the Board, demonstrating that the TPS/BGS provider has met its RPS requirements for the preceding reporting year (that is, for the reporting year ending May 31st of the same calendar year). PJM-EIS, which administers GATS, is the entity that issues class I RECs, class II RECs, TRECs, SRECs, and SREC-IIs for use in complying with the RPS.||[not applicable or no information]||A supplier/provider may choose to comply with RPS requirements by submitting one or more alternative compliance payments (ACPs) or solar alternative compliance payments (SACPs), as those terms are defined in N.J.A.C. 14:8-2.2.||The State, through the Energy Master Plan Committee, is required to prepare an Energy Master Plan and revise and update that plan at least once every three years.||[not applicable or no information]|
|13||New Mexico||100% carbon-free electricity by 2045 for IOUs and 2050 for Coops||Retail Sales of Electricity||State IOUs and rural electric cooperatives. The state also has several municipally owned utilities that are not regulated.||Compliance by 2045/2050 with annual reporting||Solar, wind, geothermal, and hydropower facilities brought in service after 7/1/2007||[not applicable or no information]||MRV through RPS + new MRV rules to be developed||RECs||The Public Regulation Commission reviews and approves renewable energy procurement plans and reports of IOUs and rural electric cooperatives.||For the RPS, as defined by the ETA, RECs must be in WREGIS. Each IOU is required to submit an annual renewable energy portfolio report on the previous calendar year, describing actual retail sales and subsequent reductions due to large customers, or exempt customers as well as actual procurement.
Energy Transition Act (ETA) RPS is monitored through annual reporting (past year actuals and future year plan) to the Public Regulation Commission.
|[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||RECs can be banked for future use.||After 2030, New Mexico utilities must continue to transition to carbon free resources. By 2040 80% of the retail sales of electricity by IOUs must come from renewable energy resources and by 2045, zero carbon resources must supply 100% of all retail sales from IOUs. Rural distribution cooperatives have a target of 80% zero-carbon by 2040 and 100% by 2050.|
|14||New York||100% carbon-free electricity by 2040||Emissions associated with retail sales of electricity||Load-serving entities||Compliance by 2040 with annual reporting||Tier 1: New Resources that came into operation after 1/1/2015.
Tier 2: Existing Resources.
ZEC: Existing qualifying nuclear facilities.
Tier 4: New resources serving New York City.
|[not applicable or no information]||Specific MRV structure established||RECs, Zero Energy Credits (ZECs)||[not applicable or no information]||New York Generation Attribute Tracking System (NYGATS) used to manage CES obligation by recording and tracking information on electricity generated, imported, and consumed within the state. The NYGATS account demonstrates LSE compliance with, and progress toward, the CES goal. The ZEC requirement mandates the LSEs procure ZECs from NYSERDA. The number of ZECs is based on each LSE’s proportionate amount of statewide load, or energy demanded, in a given compliance year.||[not applicable or no information]||An LSE that does not meet its obligations will be required to pay an ACP to New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA).||The Clean Energy Standard requires three approaches for all LSEs: meeting a RES with Tier 1 and 2 RECs and a requirement to purchase zero-emissions credits (ZECs). The processes, timelines, and obligations for purchasing Tier 1 RECs and Tier 2 RECs and ZECs differ. Compliance processes have also changed since the adoption of the CES as the programs have matured and new obligations have been added. The creation of two new Tiers: Tier 2 – a competitive tier to retain the attributes of existing renewable facilities that were in existence at the time the Clean Energy Standard was enacted and Tier 4 – designed to deliver renewable energy into the NYISO’s Zone J (New York City).||The CES expanded the RPS. The CES contains the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. New York's current RPS calls for 50% of New York's energy to come from renewable sources by 2030. In order to accomplish these goals, New York has created a RES containing ZEC requirements.|
|15||North Carolina||Carbon neutrality in the electricity sector by 2050||Emissions associated with generation||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||No MRV info available||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||Develop a plan, no later than 12/31/2022, with the electric public utilities.||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||2021 legislation (HB 951) requires the North Carolina Utilities Commission to “take all reasonable steps” to achieve a 70% reduction in CO2 emissions from electric generating facilities in the state by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2050.||[not applicable or no information]|
|16||Oregon||Greenhouse gas emissions reduced 100 percent below baseline emissions by 2040||Legislation refers variously to emissions associated with electricity sold or delivered to retail consumers and emissions reported under Oregon Revised Statutes (ORS) 468A.280||Retail electricity providers||Compliance by 2040 with annual reporting||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||Not yet identified||Not yet specified||[not applicable or no information]||Reporting on annual greenhouse gas emissions associated with the electricity sold to retail electricity consumers by the retail electricity provider to the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Report contains: An estimate of annual GHG emissions associated with electricity sold the current year and following three years; Actions to make continual progress toward meeting the CES, but does not require RECs||[not applicable or no information]||Providers that continue to be out of compliance must develop a detailed plan on how they will return to compliance.||Electric companies that serve less than 25,000 consumers are exempt. 2021 legislation (HB 2021) requires IOUs to reduce GHG emissions associated with the electricity they sell to 80 percent below baseline emissions levels by 2030, 90 percent below baseline emissions levels by 2035, and 100 percent below baseline emissions levels by 2040.||[not applicable or no information]|
|17||Puerto Rico||100% renewable energy for electricity by 2050||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||Legislation increases the RPS||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||2019 legislation (SB1121), the Public Energy Policy Law of Puerto Rico, set a timeline for reaching 100% renewable electricity by 2050. Legislation increases the RPS.||[not applicable or no information]|
|18||Rhode Island||100% renewable energy electricity by 2030||Retail sales of electricity||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||For the RPS, resources must be in NEPOOL or delivered into NEPOOL||[not applicable or no information]||No MRV info available||For RPS: NE-GIS certificates||[not applicable or no information]||RES compliance is demonstrated through procurement of NE-GIS certificates from generators certified by the commission as using eligible renewable energy sources.||[not applicable or no information]||Obligated entity may make an ACP to the renewable energy development fund||There is no formal 100% renewable electricity mandate in statute at this time – indeed, one of the recommendations of the 100% Renewable Electricity by 2030 report is to enact legislation requiring a 100% standard.||[not applicable or no information]|
|19||Virginia||100% carbon-free electricity by 2045 for Dominion Energy and 2050 for Appalachian Power Company||Retail sales of electricity||Dominion Energy Virginia and American Electric Power||Compliance by 2045/2050, with annual reporting||Facilities located in Virginia or within PJM||[not applicable or no information]||MRV through existing RPS||RECs||[not applicable or no information]||Retirement of RPS-eligible RECs||[not applicable or no information]||A utility that does not meet its targets is required to pay a specific deficiency payment or purchase additional RECs||The 2020 Virginia Clean Economy Act (House Bill 1526 and Senate Bill 851) requires zero-carbon utilities by 2050 at the latest.||[not applicable or no information]|
|20||Washington||Greenhouse gas neutral by 2030 and zero emissions electricity by 2045||Retail sales of electricity||Electric utilities serving retail customers||Compliance with the GHG neutral standard begins in 2030 and compliance with the 100% clean standard begins in 2045. There are four-year compliance periods under the 2030 standard, and annual reporting required under the 2045 standard.||Generation facilities with COD after 3/31/1999; located in the Pacific Northwest, or the electricity from the facility is delivered into the state on a real-time basis without shaping, storage, or integration services. Qualified hydro and incremental electricity where the generation does not result in new water diversions or impoundments. Qualified biomass energy. Select generation from a qualifying utility that serves customers in other states.||[not applicable or no information]||Specific MRV structure established||RECs||Unbundled RECs can only be used for up to 20% of compliance; 80% of compliance must be met with bundled RECs or retained non-power attributes.||RECs must be tracked and retired in WREGIS. Annual submission of GHG content calculations based on the fuel sources. Unspecified electricity uses an emissions rate determined by the Dept. of Ecology. Consumer-owned utilities report to the Dept. of Commerce and investor-owned utilities report to the Utilities and Transportation Commission. Utilities must submit clean energy implementation plans proposing clean energy targets every four years from 2022-2045. Utilities must submit an interim compliance report in 2026. Compliance reports are due every four years beginning in 2030, and annually after 2045.||[not applicable or no information]||Entities can make an ACP; or for up to 20% of compliance they can use unbundled RECs, invest in certain energy transformation projects, use electricity from energy recovery from certain municipal solid waste facilities. Penalties for noncompliance are $100 multiplied by the following multipliers for each ineligible MWh: 1.5 for coal-fired resources, 0.84 for gas-fired peaking power plants, 0.60 for gas-fired combined-cycle power plants.||Utilities may adopt a slower transition path if necessary to avoid rate shock. The law also provides for short-term waivers of the clean energy standards if needed to protect reliability. There is a specific policy to phase out coal first.||[not applicable or no information]|
|21||Wisconsin||100% carbon-free electricity by 2050||Electricity consumed within the state||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||RECS||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||[not applicable or no information]||Governor Tony Evers’ Executive Order (EO38) in 2019 directed a new Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy to “achieve a goal” of all carbon-free power by 2050.||[not applicable or no information]|
What is being regulated:
Who is being regulated:
MRV Rules and Practices:
Alternative Compliance and Offsets:
Special Rules and Notes:
Relationships to other Programs: