100% Clean Energy Collaborative - Publications

State Analyses | Some states have conducted studies to plot out a pathway to 100% clean energy or other deep decarbonization goals. Those studies include:


New Jersey

  • 2019 New Jersey Energy Master Plan: Pathway to 2050 (New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, January 2020). This plan was produced by multiple state agencies to identify a clear roadmap for achieving 100% clean energy. The plan emerged from a May 2018 executive order by Governor Phil Murphy in which he directed the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (NJ BPU) to convene an Energy Master Plan Committee to produce the plan.
  • New Jersey 2019 IEP Technical Appendix (Evolved Energy Research, November 2019). NJ BPU contracted with Rocky Mountain Institute to prepare a 2019 Integrated Energy Plan that would inform and feed into 2019 Energy Master Plan. Rocky Mountain Institute subcontracted with Evolved Energy Research to conduct energy modeling. The findings of that modeling and a description of the methodology used are covered in this technical appendix.


  • Deep Decarbonization Pathways Analysis. In 2016 the Washington State Department of Ecology recommended strengthening the state’s carbon reduction goals in light of the current science of climate change. The state contracted with Evolved Energy and the Deep Decarbonization Project to conduct energy modeling “to design and evaluate scenarios that reduce GHG emissions in Washington by 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.” To show that the state has multiple pathways for achieving deep carbon reductions, three different scenarios were presented in December 2016 in the form of an executive summary and a full report in the form of a slide set.

Studies by NGOs and Academic Researchers

Challenge of Our Time: Pathways to a Clean Energy Future for the Northwest (Clean Energy Transition Institute, June 2019). The Clean Energy Transition Institute, a research and analysis nonprofit organization, commissioned an “economy-wide deep decarbonization pathways study to serve as a blueprint for how Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington might achieve a low-carbon, clean energy economy over the next three decades.” The study explores alternative pathways to achieving deep carbon reductions and “models the energy systems in each of the four Northwest states to identify the interdependencies, efficiencies, and trade-offs that must be considered when pursuing deep decarbonization.”

Deep Decarbonization in the Northeastern United States and Expanded Coordination with Hydro-Québec. (Sustainable Development Solutions Network, April 2018). This regional study analyzes what would be required to achieve deep decarbonization in New England and New York. The research was sponsored by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, an initiative of the United Nations, in collaboration with provincial utility Hydro-Québec. The research was conducted by Evolved Energy Research using the using the Energy PATHWAYS model.

Deep Decarbonization of the U.S. Electricity Sector: Is There a Role for Nuclear Power? (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, September 2019). This report by four MIT researchers examines whether new nuclear power capacity can play a role in achieving deep decarbonization of the electricity system. It concludes that price assumptions for new nuclear power make a big difference. Simulations show that the availability of nuclear at $0.05/kWh (2006$) significantly reduces the carbon price needed to achieve a 90% reduction in the electricity sector. At higher prices, new nuclear would be less of a factor.

Getting to Zero Carbon Emissions in the Electric Power Sector (Joule, December 2018). This article in the journal Joule by researchers and energy experts Jesse Jenkins, Max Luke, and Samuel Thernstrom reviews 40 studies published since 2014 that explore deep decarbonization reductions of at least 80%. It identifies consistent themes and insights from the studies.

Wholesale Electricity Market Design for Rapid Decarbonization (Energy Innovation, June 2019). Analysts from Energy Innovation, the Regulatory Assistance Project, and Grid Strategies, LLC produced a series of three papers that explored which wholesale market design would be best for decarbonizing the power system by integrating more clean energy reliably and at least cost.